Delta-Limonene has been well known for treating nausea, and for it's uplifting happy effect. Research has shown that this terpene increases our dopamine and serotonin levels. Conditions that have elevated dopamine and serotonin might not tolerate d-limonene, and may have a worsening of symptoms. Some of those conditions include:
What medications can interact with d-limonene?
The following are dopamine agonist, and the side effects of these medications might worsen with increased levels of d-limonene:
amantadine (Symmetrel,Gocovri,Osmolex ER)
bromocriptine (Cycloset. Parlodel)
carbidopa / levodopa (Sinemet,Rytary, Duopa, Parcopa)
carbidopa / entacapone / levodopa (Stalevo)
selegiline (Zelapar, Eldepryl, Emsam)
SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), or 5HT1-A agonist may also interact with d-limonene. Here are some common SSRI medications:
fluvoxamine (Luvox CR,)
fluoxetine (Sarafem, Prozac, Selfemra, Rapiflux)
paroxetine (Pexeva, Paxil, Brisdelle, sertraline, Zoloft)
There are a few other medications/substances to consider as well:
Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), antidepressants such as trazodone, duloxetine (Cymbalta) and venlafaxine (Effexor)
Bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban), an antidepressant and tobacco-addiction medication
Tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline and nortriptyline (Pamelor)
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), antidepressants such as isocarboxazid (Marplan) and phenelzine (Nardil)
Anti-migraine medications such as triptans (Axert, Amerge, Imitrex), carbamazepine (Tegretol) and valproic acid (Depakene)
Pain medications such as opioid pain medications including codeine (Tylenol with codeine), fentanyl (Duragesic), hydrocodone meperidine (Demerol), oxycodone (Oxycontin, Percocet, Percodan) and tramadol (Ultram).
Lithium (Lithobid), a mood stabilizer
Illicit drugs, including LSD, Ecstasy, cocaine and amphetamines
Herbal supplements, including St. John's wort, ginseng and nutmeg
Over-the-counter cough and cold medications containing dextromethorphan (Delsym, Mucinex DM, others)
Anti-nausea medications such as granisetron, metoclopramide (Reglan), droperidol (Inapsine) and ondansetron (Zofran)
Linezolid (Zyvox), an antibiotic
Ritonavir (Norvir), an anti-retroviral medication used to treat HIV/AIDS
With isolates terpenes widely available. Overdosing with a combination of the above medications with a large amount of isolated d-limonene could lead to some serious side effects.
Serotonin Syndrome is common with overdosing with an anti-depressant like Prozac. Seizures and a fever going over 105o can be fatal.
Prescriptions for dopamine and serotonin are commonly used for treating the following
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Diabetes, Type 2
Major Depressive Disorder
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Periodic Limb Movement Disorder
Restless Legs Syndrome
Sexual Dysfunction, SSRI Induced
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Tardive Diskenesia (TD) is often a permanent, horrible side effect of the prescription treatment for Parkinson's Disease. D-Limonene might be useful for treating Parkinson's Disease, but might make Tardive Diskenesia worse.
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